Hampir semua orang mempunyai tanda lahir atau birthmarks, cuma jenis dan bentuk saja yang berbeza-beza. Tanda lahir yang besar di kawasan muka sebanyak sedikit mencacatkan kecantikan semulajadi seseorang itu. Ini selalunya menyebabkan seseorang itu berasa malu dan rasa rendah diri, terutama sekali pada zaman kanak-kanak di mana mereka selalu diejek oleh kawan-kawan sebaya. Lebih menyedihkan lagi kalau gelaran-gelaran berkaitan yang kurang enak didengar melekat sehingga ke tua.
Pernahkah anda terfikir bagaimana tanda lahir ini terjadi? adakah ia trait (ciri) warisan dari satu generasi ke generasi yang lain?
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Birthmarks and Other Abnormal Skin PigmentationSkin is just like the humans who wear it: It’s not perfect. If everything went as planned, the body would produce just enough skin pigment and blood vessels would behave.But that’s not the case. There are birthmarks and other pigmentation disorders that affect many people. We’ve included some of the most common abnormalities here.Remember: never self-diagnose! If you think you have one of these skin pigmentation abnormalities, make sure you visit a doctor to receive an official diagnosis.BirthmarksAs might be expected, this type of abnormal skin coloration will appear at birth or in just a few weeks following birth. It’s important to remember that most birthmarks are non-cancerous, though a doctor should examine your child if he or she is born with abnormally colored skin or develops birthmarks shortly after birth. Certain birthmarks described below can pose health risks.Pigmented BirthmarksThe discoloration of the skin will appear smooth and flat. These spots are known by several names, including Mongolian spots — bruised or bluish in color, typically appearing on buttocks; cafe-au-lait spots — light brown; and typical moles, which are also called nevi. Moles should be monitored for bleeding, color, shape, or size changes, or itching.Macular StainsThese appear anywhere on the body as mild red marks, but they are not elevated. Macular stains are the most common type of vascular (from blood vessels) birthmark. These marks can come in two forms:* Angel’s kisses may appear on the forehead and eyelids, but will typically disappear early in childhood.
* Stork bites will appear on the back of the neck and can last into adult years.Because these marks are often mild, there is no treatment necessary.HemangiomaHemangiomas are caused by many tiny blood vessels bunched together and vary in severity. Typically, this birthmark can be just that, a mark, or it can grow larger and larger until treated. Hemangiomas can grow very rapidly through the first year of a child’s life.There are two types of hemangiomas: strawberry hemangiomas, which are slightly raised, red birthmarks and can appear anywhere on the body; or cavernous hemangiomas, which are a deeper birthmark characterized by a bluish color.Most hemangiomas will go away on their own; roughly 50% resolve by age five, 70% by age seven and 90% by age nine.Reasons to treat hemangioma include problems with functions (such as sight, eating, hearing, or defecation), ulceration, or pain. Hemangiomas can be treated in different ways, each of which carries its own risks.Corticosteroid medication, which can be injected or taken orally, is one option for treating hemangiomas. Risks associated with corticosteroid medication include high blood pressure, high blood sugar, poor growth, or cataracts. If corticosteroids fail, there are other medications that may be an option.Certain hemangiomas can also be treated with lasers to stop them from growing. Risks associated with that treatment include ulceration and scarring.In some cases, a hemangioma can also be removed with surgery. Other times, a combination of these approaches is the most beneficial treatment.Port-wine StainsPicture of Port Wine Stains Port-wine stains are caused by abnormal development of blood vessels (capillaries) and last a lifetime. The port-wine stain (also known as nevus flammeus) appears as a flat, pink, red or purple mark, and occurs on the face, trunk, arms, or legs.If you or your child has a port-wine stain present on eyelids, this is thought to pose an increased risk of glaucoma, an eye disease associated with increased pressure in the eyes that can lead to blindness if it’s not treated.Doctors have tried many ways to treat port-wine stains, including radiation, tattooing, freezing, dermabrasion, or sclerotherapy. Laser treatment is currently the only method that destroys capillaries in the skin without causing damage to the rest of the skin.Port-wine stains may be seen in certain medical disorders, including Sturge-Weber Syndrome, with symptoms that include port-wine stains on the face, vision problems, convulsions, mental retardation, and perhaps even paralysis; and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome which may include symptoms of many port-wine stains, varicose veins and/or too much bone and soft tissue growth. Each of these syndromes is very rare.Skin Pigmentation DisordersAlbinismAlbinism, an inherited disorder, is caused by the absence of the pigment melanin and results in no pigmentation in skin, hair, or eyes. In albinos, their body has an abnormal gene, which restricts the body from producing melanin. There is no cure for albinism, and individuals should use a sunscreen at all times because they are much more likely to get sun damage and skin cancer. This disorder can occur in any race.MelasmaMelasma (also known as chloasma) is characterized by tan or brown patches on the cheeks, nose, foreheard, and chin. Although this condition is typically termed the “pregnancy mask,” men can also develop this condition. Melasma may go away after pregnancy but, if it persists, can be treated with certain prescription creams and some over the counter skin care products. Remember to consult your doctor or dermatologist for a proper diagnosis of this condition before you choose to treat it yourself. If you have melasma, use a sunscreen at all times because sunlight will worsen your condition.Pigmentation Loss As a Result of Skin DamageIf you’ve had a skin infection, blisters, burns, or other trauma to your skin, you may have a loss of pigmentation in the affected area. The good news with this type of pigment loss is that it’s frequently not permanent, and cosmetics can be used to cover the area.VitiligoVitiligo is a pigmentation disorder in which melanocytes (the cells that make pigment) are destroyed. As a result, white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. The cause of vitiligo is not known, but some possible causes include physical trauma or certain diseases such as diabetes. There is no cure for vitiligo, but there are several treatments, including psoralens (light-sensitive drugs) used in combination with ultraviolet A light treatment.The story behind birthmarks?Birthmark BasicsBirthmarks gain attention when there’s a media blitz about someone with a visible mark, such as New Orleans Saints quarterback Drew Brees. News reports suggest that he was born with this birthmark on his right cheek, which doctors checked early on and found to be harmless. Folk wisdom calls such babies “touched by an angel,” but a doctor’s advice is best.
What Is a Birthmark?A birthmark is a colored mark on or under the skin that’s present at birth or develops shortly after birth.Some birthmarks fade with time; others become more pronounced. Birthmarks may be caused by extra pigment in the skin or by blood vessels that do not grow normally. Most birthmarks are painless and harmless. In rare cases, they can cause complications or are associated with other conditions. All birthmarks should be checked by a doctor.
Salmon PatchesSalmon patches are nests of blood vessels that appear as small, pink, flat marks on the skin. They occur in 1/3 of newborn babies. Salmon patches can appear on the back of the neck (“stork bite”), between the eyes (“angel’s kiss”), or on the forehead, nose, upper lip, or eyelids. Some fade as baby grows, but patches on the back of the neck usually don’t go away. Salmon patches require no treatment.
Port Wine StainsA port wine stain begins as a flat, pinkish-red mark at birth and gradually becomes darker and reddish-purple with age. Most will get bigger and thicker, too. Port wine stains are caused by dilated blood capillaries. Those on the eyelid may increase the risk of glaucoma. Port wine stains may be a sign of other disorders, but usually not. Treatment includes laser therapy, skin grafts, and masking makeup.
Mongolian SpotsMongolian spots are flat, smooth marks that are present from birth. Frequently found on the buttocks or lower back, they’re typically blue, but can also be bluish gray, bluish black, or brown. They may resemble a bruise. Mongolian spots are most common on darker-skinned babies. They usually fade by school age, but may never disappear entirely. No treatment is required.
Cafe-Au-Lait SpotsCafe-au-lait spots are smooth and oval and range in color from light to medium brown, which is how they got their name, “coffee with milk” in French. They’re typically found on the torso, buttocks, and legs. Cafe-au-lait spots may get bigger and darker with age, but are generally not considered a problem. However, having several spots larger than a quarter is linked with neurofibromatosis and the rare McCune-Albright syndrome. Consult a doctor if your child has several spots.
Strawberry HemangiomasHemangiomas are a collection of small, closely packed blood vessels. Strawberry hemangiomas occur on the surface of the skin, usually on the face, scalp, back, or chest. They may be red or purple; they can be flat or slightly raised, with sharp borders.Strawberry hemangiomas usually develop a few weeks after birth. They grow rapidly through the first year before subsiding around age 9. Some slight discoloration or puckering of the skin may remain at the site. No treatment is required, but when desired, medicines and laser therapy are effective.
Cavernous HemangiomasPresent at birth, deeper cavernous hemangiomas are just under the skin and appear as a bluish spongy mass of tissue filled with blood. If they’re deep enough, the overlying skin may look normal. Cavernous hemangiomas typically appear on the head or neck. Most disappear by puberty. A combination of cavernous and strawberry hemangioma can occur.
Venous MalformationVenous malformations are caused by abnormally formed, dilated veins. Although present at birth, they may not become apparent until later in childhood or adulthood. Venous malformations appear in 1% to 4% of babies. They are often found on the jaw, cheek, tongue, and lips. They may also appear on the limbs, trunk and internal organs, including the brain. They will continue to grow slowly, and they don’t shrink with time. Treatment — often sclerotherapy or surgery — may be necessary for pain or impaired function.
Pigmented Nevi (Moles)Moles occur when cells in the skin grow in a cluster instead of being spread throughout the skin. They can appear anywhere on the body, alone or in groups. Moles are usually flesh-colored, brown, or black. Moles may darken with sun exposure and during pregnancy. They tend to lose color during adulthood and may disappear in old age. Most moles are not cause for alarm. However, moles may have a slightly increased risk of becoming skin cancer. Moles should be checked by a doctor if:* They change size or shape.
* They look different from other moles.* They appear after age 20.
Congenital NeviCongenital nevi are moles that appear at birth. The skin texture may range from normal to raised, or nodular to irregular. Congenital nevi can grow anywhere on the body and vary in size –from a small 1-inch mark to a giant birthmark covering half of the body or more. Small congenital nevi occur in 1% of newborns. Most moles are not dangerous. But congenital nevi, especially large ones, should always be evaluated by a doctor since they may have an increased risk of becoming skin cancer.
Dysplastic Nevi (Atypical Moles)Atypical moles are generally larger (one-quarter inch across or more) than ordinary moles and have irregular and indistinct borders. They may resemble cancerous moles. They may have a mix of colors including pink, red, tan and brown.These moles tend to be hereditary. Atypical moles have an increased chance of developing into melanoma skin cancer. Have a doctor evaluate all moles that look unusual, grow larger, or change in any way.